ORTHODONTICS

Orthodontia, also called orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics, is a specialty of dentistry that deals with the diagnosis, prevention and correction of malpositioned teeth and jaws. Three type of appliances can be used :

REMOVABLE APPLIANCES
FIXED APPLIANCES
FUNCTIONAL APPLIANCES

Orthodontic treatment can focus on dental displacement only, or deal with the control and modification of facial growth. In the latter case it is better defined as "dentofacial orthopedics". In severe malocclusions that can be a part of craniofacial abnormality, management often requires a combination of orthodontics with headgear or reverse pull facemask and / or jaw surgery or even orthognathic surgery.

BRACES:

Dental braces are devices used in orthodontics that align and straighten teeth and help position them with regard to a person's bite, while also aiming to improve dental health.They are small brackets stuck at specific positions  on the tooth and a metal wire is passed through their slots. Braces also fix gaps. They are often used to correct underbites, as well as malocclusions, overbites, open bites, deep bites, cross bites, crooked teeth, and various other flaws of the teeth and jaw. Braces can be either cosmetic or structural. Dental braces are often used in conjunction with other orthodontic appliances to help widen the palate or jaws and to otherwise assist in shaping the teeth and jaws.

Lingual braces are also available for people who have esthetic concerns.
 

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INVISIBLE BRACES OR INVASILIGN:

Clear aligners, also known as clear-aligner treatment, are orthodontic devices that are a transparent, plastic form of dental braces used to adjust teeth. They are indicated for "mild to moderate crowding (1–6 mm) and mild to moderate spacing (1–6 mm)", in cases where there are no discrepancies of the jawbone. They are also indicated for patients who have experienced a relapse after fixed orthodontic treatment.

 
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SPACE MAINTAINERS

space maintainer is an appliance that is custom-made by a dentist or orthodontist in acrylic or metal material. It can be either removable or cemented in a child's mouth. Its purpose is to keep the space open to allow the permanent tooth to erupt and come into place.

 
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DENTAL SEALANTS:

Dental sealants (also termed pit and fissure sealants) are a dental treatment intended to prevent tooth decay. Teeth have recesses on their biting surfaces; the back teeth have fissures (grooves) and some front teeth have cingulum pits. It is these pits and fissures which are most vulnerable to tooth decay because food and bacteria stick in them and because they are hard-to-clean areas. Dental sealants are materials placed in these pits and fissures to fill them in, creating a smooth surface which is easy to clean. Dental sealants are mainly used in children who are at higher risk of tooth decay, and are usually placed as soon as the adult molar teeth come through.

 
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FLOURIDE TREATMENT:

Fluoride varnish is a highly concentrated form of fluoride which is applied to the tooth's surface, by a dentist, dental hygienist or other health care professional, as a type of topical fluoride therapy. It is not a permanent varnish but due to its adherent nature it is able to stay in contact with the tooth surface for several hours. It may be applied to the enamel, dentine or cementum of the tooth and can be used to help prevent decay, remineralise the tooth surface and to treat dentine hypersensitivity.

 
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